Fascism : A Historiography on the Rise of Fascism

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In the early twentieth century, fascism took hold and spread rapidly across Europe. Some states were able to resist the authoritarian nationalist temptations offered through the new movement. While others, succumbed to its temptations and spiraled quickly into fascist states that were characterized by violence. Scholars have offered many explanations as to why some states (the North and North/West) resisted, while others (Central and South/East) embraced the new violent movement. Continue reading “Fascism : A Historiography on the Rise of Fascism”

The Rise of China and World Order

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The rise of China as a global economic and political power is arguably the most significant development in world politics and is one that has been unprecedented throughout history. China’s global impact is increasingly felt on every continent, in most international institutions, and on many global issues. (Shambaugh 2013) This is starting to create a power transition from the West to the East as the United States starts to (arguably) decline, shifting the world landscape from a unipolar world towards a bipolar order. Historically speaking, the emergence of new poles of power in the international system have been geopolitically destabilizing such as the rise of Russia, Germany, and the United States. Continue reading “The Rise of China and World Order”

United States Refusal To Join The League of Nations

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In 1920 the United States (U.S.) had denied the Treaty of Versailles, refusing to become a member of the League of Nations. President Wilson was a firm believer that the League would allow all of the world’s nations to live in peace with one another. However, the U.S. Senate was concerned that the obligations of League membership would force them to become too involved in international affairs. Many Scholars have linked the failure of the League to the United States refusal to join. This paper will examine how newspaper articles and scholarly historical works differ.. Continue reading “United States Refusal To Join The League of Nations”

Letter of Bernard of Clairvaux 1147 : Primary Document Analysis

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The primary document, “The Letter of Bernard of Clairvaux”, was written by Bernard of Clairvaux in 1147. The letter was written after the loss of Edessa in order to promote a new crusade to gain back western losses. During this time, Bernard was a very prominent and influential clergy member who was deeply involved with religious and political issues. Bernard was known for his strong influential voice that had allowed him to gain many followers and direct the society in the way to which the church had desired. Through his newfound privileges proclaimed by Pope Eugenius III, Bernard acted to… Continue reading “Letter of Bernard of Clairvaux 1147 : Primary Document Analysis”

United Nations, Reform, and the Quest for World Order

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One of the greatest transformation in the international system since the Treaty of Westphalia is the development of the United Nations (UN). The UN was established in 1945 following the Second World War to facilitate cooperation, security, and development among the world’s nations.Since its creation, the UN has made significant contributions towards the study of international conflict by maintaining a leadership position and serving as a diplomatic and military mediator on the world stage. There are, however, significant limitations embedded within the institution that have hindered its ability to act as an efficient organization. These are found in the structure of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and a lack of designated and binding enforcement capabilities. These limitations significantly undermine the international system and limit Continue reading “United Nations, Reform, and the Quest for World Order”

East Asian and Latin American Approaches to Industrialization

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This paper will seek to explain East Asian and Latin American approaches to industrialization

  • ⎯ identify the main stages of industrial transformation;
  • ⎯ define easy import substitution industrialization ;
  • ⎯ define easy export substitution and explain what exactly is being substituted for what;
  • ⎯ define difficult import substitution industrialization and clarify in what sense do we say that Latin American countries entered this state “prematurely” while the East Asian economies entered this stage “maturely”;
  • ⎯ explain what potential problems are there for countries which follow easy ISI with difficult ISI, thus skipping the export substitution stage of transformation;
  • ⎯ clarify the importance of the easy export substitution stage of industrial transformation as a means to absorb labor from less productive sectors, particularly agriculture.. Continue reading “East Asian and Latin American Approaches to Industrialization”

A Review of the Article: Global Challenges in Disaster Reduction

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Global Challenges in Disaster Reduction

The article entitled, Global Challenges in Disaster Reduction, written by Briceno Salvano examines the need to develop a common understanding on disaster reduction in the face of global challenges such as climate change. Salvano’s general thesis is that together we must shift our emphasis from disaster response and relief to disaster reduction by incorporating preparedness, mitigation, and prevention within the context of sustainable development towards reducing our collective risk and vulnerability to natural hazards. (pg. 3) To justify his thesis, Salvano points towards the importance of learning from.. Continue reading “A Review of the Article: Global Challenges in Disaster Reduction”